In 2023, the European Union (EU), under its Green Deal, adopted a wide body of decarbonisation legislation that will disrupt infrastructure and energy sectors such as hydrogen, maritime, aviation, steel, chemicals and advanced manufacturing.

In the ‘Arup guide to EU Carbon Legislation’, we set out how different EU legislative initiatives interact to increase the cost of carbon, making fossil fuel-based solutions ever less competitive, while also increasing the economic competitiveness of low-carbon alternatives through mandates, incentives, efficiencies and economies of scale.

Long-term investment decisions need to take into account this exponentially growing shift. Any investment decision cannot ignore this impact.

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Arup guide to EU Carbon Legislation