Etihad Manchester City Stadium. Credit: Dennis Gilbert ; Etihad Manchester City Stadium. Credit: Dennis Gilbert ;

Etihad Stadium, Manchester

A successful two-stage design approach converted an athletics venue into a football stadium

The trigger for the creation of the City of Manchester Stadium was a single event, the XVII Commonwealth Games in 2002. Nonetheless, the terms of its creation required it to become a legacy for the City of Manchester that is viable, iconic, and a catalyst for regeneration. The Games themselves took only 10 days, but the Stadium will be used by Manchester City Football Club for many years to come, as well as acting as a ‘neutral’ venue in major cup competitions, and for occasional concerts.

The economics of the Commonwealth Games were largely driven by television viewing figures. Temporary stands and facilities that were required for the smooth running of the event were designed to be mostly off camera during the spectacular opening and closing ceremonies and track finals. UK Premier League football clubs, on the other hand, rely far more heavily on ticket sales for their income, which meant that some temporary facilities acceptable for the Games would not fit the needs of the Club.

The project demonstrates the potential to design for flexibility through a staged process of construction, enabling use for distinct sequential events, each requiring a significantly different capacity and configuration.

Project Summary


41,000seat athletics stadium

50,000seatfootball stadium

9monthconversion

Etihad Manchester City Stadium. Credit: Dennis Gilbert Etihad Manchester City Stadium. Credit: Dennis Gilbert

Architectural form

The stadium has a striking sculptural form. As one approaches the building, the views towards it terminate the key view corridors, helping to define its sense of place. The building also responds to local context – the canal corridor and the housing south of Ashton New Road.
 
The elliptical form is oriented so as to place the stadium's tallest parts in the middle of the site, whilst the lower northern and southern aspects acknowledge the sensitive neighbouring uses. The objective for the stadium to be part of a lively local setting is partly assured by its incorporation in the new Sportcity complex, with the leisure and residential functions that are included in the overall development

Optimised viewing conditions

The columnĀ­free cable-net roof structure enables spectators from all seats to view the track, pitch or arena without obstructions. This is aided by a recessed tread on the gangways that reduces adjacent handrail heights and ensures unimpeded viewing. The resulting views of the stadium from the stand, with the sweeping arcs of the lower tiers and the roof, are exhilarating.

The required seating bias determined a bowl with high sides on the east and west and low ends on the north and south, allowing a single roof geometry to cover all the seating. The structure leaves large areas in the corners which can be opened for pitch ventilation when the stadium is not in use. The stadium's high sides offer players and spectators protection from prevailing winds and low sun angles, whilst enabling the majority of seats to be in the areas most favoured by spectators.

The low sides also allow maximum sun onto the grassed pitch. The fine experience set by these conditions is enhanced by the natural light that suffuses the stands, entering through the upper edge of the concrete bowl, the roof opening and the roof's transparent inside edge.

From a Commonwealth Stadium to a Football Stadium

A successful two-stage design approach enabled the stadium to meet its initial requirements as an athletics venue, before adaptation for its permanent use for football. 

To provide the running track for the Commonwealth Games, the stadium had to be elongated. The first stage of construction involved completion of three sides of the permanent stadium, with a temporary stand to make up the rest of the seating for the duration of the Games. 

In the second phase, the track was removed, the ground lowered by 6m, with 90,000 m3 of earth removed, a lower section installed to provide 24 additional rows of seating and the temporary stand replaced. The bowl, which first covered three-quarters of the stadium in a horseshoe shape, was completed for the football stadium. The primary mast and cable structural system – totally independent of the roof plate structure – was fully constructed in the initial phase.

The secondary structure was finalised with the construction of the north stand in the second phase. The project shows the value that can be attained by strategic design, avoiding the redundancy associated with large one-off events.

 

Awards

The project was winner of the International Olympic Committee / IAKS Gold Award and the RIBA, regional and Inclusive Design Awards.

Comfort, convenience and safety

In its effective conception for crowd management, the design of the stadium's circulation systems is pivotal. The entry ramps allow crowds to enter and leave the stadium quickly and safely, and their gentle gradient facilitates access by wheelchair users. Innovation in turnstile design, configured with a 120° rotor arm, offers users increased space when entering the stadium. These factors combine to provide a reassuring arrival experience. They also reduce queuing times and pre-match agitation - in turn decreasing operational costs as ticketing controllers are not required.


An innovative fire strategy, using double roller shutters without a sprinkler system and containing many services in the towers, enabled the creation of continuous concourses. These allow for mass evacuation and provide large, clean, uncluttered spaces for users' ease of movement to the concessions and WCs that are spread around the building, avoiding the typical half-time scramble for refreshment and relief. These spacious concourses, designed as 'streets', meet the project objectives for coherence, clarity and user amenity.