Drawing on decades of experience in the design of industrial buildings, we provided integrated and innovative low-energy design solutions for Jaguar Land Rover's Engine Manufacturing Centre, while ensuring the building organisation and the location of services enables any future changes in manufacturing process and layout.
The focus on a low-carbon strategy resulted in a wide range of sustainable features including the largest roof-mounted photovoltaic (PV) array in the UK; transpired solar collector cladding; solar panels for heating domestic hot water; natural ventilation; displacement ventilation to provide cooling; lighting control with daylight dimming; variable speed drives to minimise pump and fan power consumption; heat recovery on air handling units (AHUs); grey water recycling; and storm water attenuation.
The importance of worker wellbeing was addressed by the use of natural light and ventilation, as well as by breaking down barriers between the factory floor and administration areas as much as possible.
Carbon saving opportunities
As part of an initial energy study, we identified the potential for significant carbon savings by using a roof-mounted PV array and solar thermal installation on the façade. More than 21,000 PV panels provide over 5.3MW of power – equivalent to 30% of the facility’s energy requirements – and reduce the factory’s carbon footprint by at least 2,400 tonnes per year. A transpired solar collector cladding system is used to pre-heat the supply air to the staff changing facility, reducing energy consumption and providing significant carbon savings. The Colourcoat Renew SC system, developed by Tata Steel and the University of Swansea’s Innovation Centre, heats 5m3/s of supply air, producing carbon savings of 1 tonne per 5m of solar collector.
245 separate parts coming together to form an engine derivative
30%of the facility’s energy requirements met by PV panels
Heating and cooling solutions
The machine hall is heated from an all-air system with heating diffusers located 3m above the factory floor to maximise the facilities’ future flexibility and adaptability in relocating process plant and layouts.
During the winter months, the manufacturing equipment in the machine hall provides heat to the space, with gas-fired AHUs providing top-up heat as required.
In the summer, vents in the north-light windows can be opened to expel hot air, helping to reduce extract energy. Assembly halls are heated and cooled using a displacement ventilation system which, for the same reason of ensuring future flexibility and adaptability, have displacement terminals located 3m above floor level. To reduce airborne contamination within the machine and assembly halls, the supply air is filtered through class F9 filters – the level below a cleanroom environment.
To overcome significant heat and pumping losses that would arise in a water-based heating system, due to the length of the pipe runs required for a facility of this size, a gas-fired heating system is used to serve the production halls. Using a gas distribution system also had the advantage in that a gas system was already required to serve process equipment.
Digital design responding to the manufacturing process
Building Information Modelling (BIM) allowed for the design model to be integrated with Jaguar Land Rover’s process and equipment model. This allowed coordination of process machinery and services, along with the building services and structural frame.
The fully integrated model was issued as part of the completed project’s operation and maintenance manual and included specification and data tagging of equipment and services for use post-occupancy. This ensured the client’s facilities management team could utilise all the design information embedded within the model.
Whenever the manufacturing process changed during the design phase, digital design elements were utilised to take in those changes to minimise the potential of any delay. For example, when another 30m bay was added to the building, the automated work flow used in the structural design enabled the design checks to be carried out quickly. The models were updated to reuse already manufactured steel, and the new bay was inserted as the penultimate bay.
Building organisation that maximises flexibility and adaptability
The overall facility layout was developed by detailed mapping of the engine manufacturing process including equipment, people, materials, waste and transport movements.
Efficiency in configuration coupled with future building flexibility underpinned the layout of the large factory halls and the smaller adjacent support spaces. 30m trusses have been designed for multi-bay continuity with an arrangement that facilitates the production areas currently required by the client, giving clear spans without compromising the quantity of services the roof can support.
Bracing was kept at the perimeter, which allowed for the subdivision of bays and means that assembly lines can be reconfigured if required in future. The underside of the saw-tooth PV-cladded roof, with the south-facing elements set at a 30° angle, provides the primary route for distribution of services at high level, minimising the requirement for service runs in the floor slab.
With all its innovative features, the JLR Facility is Wolverhampton is a great addition to the Arup growing portfolio of industrial facilities delivered in UK and abroad.