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Marina Bay Sands Resort at night c Arup; Marina Bay Sands Resort at night c Arup;

Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort, Singapore

The Marina Bay Sands is an architectural and engineering marvel

Conceived by renowned architect Moshe Safdie, Marina Bay Sands® is one of the world's most recognisable skyscrapers located in the heart of Singapore's Marina Bay downtown district. It integrates a prestigious waterfront promenade with iconic retail, entertainment and hotel facilities, public spaces and breathtaking city views.

Boasting the world’s longest public cantilever, the SkyPark® is an engineering marvel. The rooftop superstructure is sited 200m high straddling three 55-storey luxury hotel towers. The structure is 38m wide and 340m long – equivalent to four and a half A380 aircraft.

Arup is responsible for multidisciplinary engineering including advanced works, infrastructure, structural, civil, fire and geotechnical engineering, building physics, maritime engineering, traffic, lighting design, façade and acoustic consulting and risk management.

 "Every element of the project is technically challenging to design and build" explains Cheong Va-Chan, Arup’s Project Director.

The basements were constructed in deep marine clays, the SkyPark® features the world’s longest public cantilever and the lotus-inspired museum is a geometrically-challenging structure. Site works were densely packed, creating complex staging and interface issues.

Arup adopted innovative 3D modelling technologies, pushing the boundaries of current software and systems.

These modelling techniques provided a significant reduction in modelling time, better coordinated documents, rapid concept evaluation, optimised designs, visualisation of complex technical issues and improved communication with the client.

Complex and challenging design

Responsible for engineering all aspects of Marina Bay Sands® and the Sands SkyPark®, Arup designed and tested structures to realise Moshe Safdie’s ambitious designs.

Arup had to overcome a number of structural and technically complex challenges. The SkyPark® connects the three 55-storey towers on which it rests, allowing for the natural and individual movement of each tower. In addition, the basement levels were constructed in deep marine clays, while the SkyPark® features the world’s longest public cantilever. Site works were also densely packed, creating complex staging and interface issues. Furthermore, complex geometric challenges has to be resolved for the lotus-inspired ArtScience museum.



Using innovative 3D Modelling technologies at the time, we pushed the boundaries of existing software and systems, achieving significant reduction in modelling time and optimised designs. Cutting-edge visualisation technology also helped communicate our designs, helping our client with their design decisions and for rapid concept evaluation. Our combination of bridge design and building technology also allowed for safe and easy construction in the deep marine clays at basement level and at the great heights of the SkyPark®. 

Occupant comfort

Much time and analytical effort was invested by our bridge and dynamics specialists to ensure Arup understood the complex behavior of wind and human movement on the structures.

Arup had to ensure the SkyPark® withstood strong winds and vibration caused by people movement and provided optimal comfort for occupants. The dynamic properties of a structure are particularly hard to predict as many elements of the structure and architectural finishes contribute to this. To resolve this, we designed large tuned mass dampers to act in a similar manner to shock absorbers within the belly of the SkyPark® and carried out large scale vibration tests to verify the design.

Unparalleled fire and life safety

Challenging fire and life safety issues had to be addressed due to crowds of people expected in the gaming, retail and convention facilities, and required some of the most complex, radical fire engineering in the world, with fire engineering highlighted as a key to realising the remarkable architecture.

An important aspect of the fire safety strategy was based on minimising fire and smoke spread through the building to reduce business interruption. A performance-based approach permitted the use of unprotected steel structure for the SkyPark® and hotel atria, as well as the use of horizontal exits and monumental exit stairs – a first in Singapore at the time.

Award wins

Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) – 10 Year Award 2020